The Writing Process:

Preparing to Write

Inspiration

Story starters

Choosing the format

Deconstruct

Writing

Put ideas, feelings. opinions, ... to the page

Leave space to adjust.

Refer to your plan

Discuss your work

Revise meaning and development

Clarify

Reflect on choices

Organize

Use Strategies

Consult

Edit language using resources, verify:

spelling

capitalization

punctuation

sentence structure

language usage 

Consult

Publish

Choose a medium

Make a polished copy

Share

 

Edit: Usage:
             
"the way in which words and phrases are actually used (as in a particular form or sense)"

Suggestions

Checklist:
bullet use basic sentence structures = subject + verb + object /description
bullet Describe the subject with adjectives and the proper article (the / a /an) = the tall boy
bullet Describe the verb with adverb(s) = the tall boy ran quickly
bullet Where did he go?  The tall boy ran quickly to the store. (a place)
bullet

use resources such as written models, dictionaries, thesauruses, grammar references

bullet

consult peers and the teacher

bullet

accept and integrate feedback

bullet

use a personalized checklist to proofread for common errors

bullet

correct errors and write a final copy

bullet

 

 from Editing Checklist

bullet Indent Paragraph(s)
bullet Complete Sentences (each has a subject and
bullet predicate)
bullet Verify capitalization
bullet Do all sentences begin with a capital letter?
bullet Do all proper nouns begin with capital letters?
bullet Verify  punctuation 
bullet Are periods and commas used correctly?  
bullet Are quotations punctuated correctly? 
bullet Verify verb Usage
bullet Do all main verbs agree with the subject in person and number?
bullet Are any parts of verb phrases missing or incorrect? 
bullet Are verb endings correct?
bullet Is the verb tense correct?
bullet Are helping verbs used when needed?
bullet Verify noun Usage
bullet Do regular plurals end in “s”?  Are irregular plurals correct? 
bullet Are articles (“a,” “an,” and “the”) used correctly? 
bullet Does every pronoun have a clear referent? 
bullet Correct Spelling (Be careful of words that sound the same but have different meanings.)
bullet Verify descriptive words
bullet Are words used that give a picture of what is taking place?
bullet Are transitional words used?
bullet Verify word variety
bullet Do sentences begin with different words?
bullet Did the writer use a variety of words in each sentence?

 

 Fragments
 Run-ons
 Comma Usage
 Other Punctuation Marks
 Articles
 Plurals and Possessives
 Pronouns
Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement

 Modifier Misplacement
 
 Subject/Verb Agreement
 Tense Sequence
 Capitalization
 Italics and Underlining
 Using Numbers
 Wordiness
 Parallelism
 Confusion
 Spelling

http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/
grammar/composition/proofing.htm

 

+

bullet

LEO Grammar Condensed

bullet

LEO Active and Passive Verbs

bullet

Flowchart Approach for Choosing Articles

bullet

LEO: Connotations

bullet

Count and Noncount Nouns

bullet

double negatives

bullet

LEO: Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers

bullet

Words That Confuse

bullet

NO and NOT

bullet

LEO Using Numbers in Writing

bullet

LEO: Parallelism

bullet

LEO: Phrase Formulas

bullet

Pronoun Antecedent Agreement

bullet

Subject Verb Agreement

bullet

Verb Tenses

bullet

Use and Nonuse of Articles

bullet

LEO: Who or Whom

1. To search for problems with subject/verb agreement

from the previous site-http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/editing.htm

Subject/verb agreement errors frequently happen when a phrase intervenes between the subject and verb, as in the following examples.

If you looked specifically for the subject and verb, the error would probably be obvious and the correction easy.

So, to find and fix subject/verb agreement errors, you need to systematically look for subjects and verbs:

bulletIsolate the main verb in each sentence.
bulletThen match that verb to its subject and make sure that they agree in number.
bulletVerbs are words that show action or state of being; however, it's sometimes easier if you think of them as words that can be used to change time.

The trick is to make the numbers agree, and the simplest way to do that is to count it out (i.e., one thing is/two things are).

More information on subject/verb agreement is available.

2. To search for problems with pronoun agreement or reference

Searching for errors in pronoun reference or agreement requires that you look for pronouns and the nouns they point to:

bulletSkim the paper and find each pronoun.
bulletOnce you find the pronoun, skim backwards until you find the noun it's replacing.
bulletMake sure that each pronoun agrees in number with its corresponding noun. Once again, the simplest way to check agreement is to count.
bulletIf you can't find the noun to which the pronoun refers, you should either insert a noun to serve as a referent or change the pronoun to a noun. Caution: Be careful when there is an article ("a," "an," "the" ) in front of a noun. The article makes the noun singular. ("Parents have a tough job. A parent should recognize how tough his or her job is." )
bulletBe particularly careful in checking for agreement with the singular pronouns "each," "everybody," and "everyone."
bulletAlthough people frequently say "Everyone . . . their" to avoid gender bias, writing requires that such singular pronouns be matched with singular pronouns: "everyone . . . his/her," "each . . . he or she."
bulletIf you feel uncomfortable using either of these constructions, either make all pronouns plural (All doctors have their reports.) or omit the second pronoun altogether (Each doctor has a report.). Information on solving the pronoun puzzle and avoiding gender bias is available.

 

 

  Frank & Ernest

 

 

Here are 80 tone and attitude words to spruce up your essays.

Tone and Attitude Words

 

afraid

ecstatic

persuasive

aggravated

encouraging

pleading

agitated

enthusiastic

pleasant

angry

excited

proud

apathetic

facetious

questioning

apologetic

friendly

romantic

appreciative

happy

sad

arrogant

harsh

sarcastic

artificial

hating

scornful

authoritative

haughty

seductive

brash

hollow

serious

calm

humble

sharp

cheerful

humorous

snooty

cheery

hurt

soothing

coarse

inquisitive

superficial

condescending

instructive

surprised

confused

ironic

sweet

consoling

joyful

sympathetic

content

lighthearted

tired

contradictory

loud

uninterested

cynical

loving

upset

dejected

manipulative

vibrant

depressed

melancholic

whimsical

desperate

miserable

wistful

disappointed

nervous

 

disgusted

numb

 

disinterested

paranoid

 

dreamy

passive

 

+

At Junket Studies

1. To join two independent clauses, use a comma followed by a conjunction, a semicolon alone, or a semicolon followed by a sentence modifier.

2. Use commas to bracket nonrestrictive phrases, which are not essential to the sentence's meaning.

3. Do not use commas to bracket phrases that are essential to a sentence's meaning.

4. When beginning a sentence with an introductory phrase or an introductory (dependent) clause, include a comma.

5. To indicate possession, end a singular noun with an apostrophe followed by an "s". Otherwise, the noun's form seems plural.

6. Use proper punctuation to integrate a quotation into a sentence. If the introductory material is an independent clause, add the quotation after a colon. If the introductory material ends in "thinks," "saying," or some other verb indicating expression, use a comma.

7. Make the subject and verb agree with each other, not with a word that comes between them.

8. Be sure that a pronoun, a participial phrase, or an appositive refers clearly to the proper subject.

9. Use parallel construction to make a strong point and create a smooth flow.

10. Use the active voice unless you specifically need to use the passive.

11. Omit unnecessary words.

 

 

ESL Video Grammar Tutorials: SOPHIA

 

Links:
  1. BBC Grammar Challenge
  2. Usage Rules
  3. Confused words
  4. Common Errors
  5. Parts of speech
  6. 5 Most Common Grammatical Errors
  7. Grammar Rules & usage
  8. Free Rice
  9. English Writing Checker
  10. Grammar Checker
  11. English Club Grammar for English learners
  12. 4 Sentence Types for writing
  13. Good Grammar, Good Style
  14.  

 

 

 

Style Guides (for citation format)

  1. APA
  2. MLA (old), (2009)
  3. Chicago Manual of Style
  4. Quotations /dialoques
  5. Using Paraphrases
  6. Editing tips
  7. Guide to writing and Grammar
  8. Daily Grammar
  9. Grammar rules
  10. Parts of speech rules and exercies
  11. ++  Collected Pointers
  12. Effective Writing Rules and quiz
  13. Commonly confused words
  14. Common Errors in English Usage
  15. Proofreading
  16. Use English Punctuation Correctly
    A quick and useful crash course in English punctuation.
  17. HyperGrammar
    An extensive electronic grammar course at the University of Ottawa’s Writing Centre.
  18. Grammar Girl
    Mignon Fogarty’s quick and dirty tips for better writing. Grammar Girl provides short, friendly tips to improve your writing. Covering the grammar rules and word choice guidelines that can confound even the best writers, Grammar Girl makes complex grammar questions simple with memory tricks to help you recall and apply those troublesome grammar rules.

    Gg in 50 Free Resources That Will Improve Your Writing Skills

  19. Better Writing Skills
    This site contains 26 short articles with writing tips about ampersands, punctuation, character spacing, apostrophes, semicolons and commas, difference between i.e. and e.g. etc.
  20. The Guide to Grammar and Writing
    An older, yet very useful site that will help you to improve your writing on word & sentence level, paragraph level and also essay & research paper level.

    Comma in 50 Free Resources That Will Improve Your Writing Skills

  21. Writer’s Block
    A compact resource with over 20 articles that cover abbreviations, capitalization, numbers, punctuation, word usage and writing styles.
  22. Paradigm Online Writing Assistant
    This site contains some useful articles that explain common grammar mistakes, basic punctuation, basic sentence concepts etc. Worth visiting and reading.
  23. Jack Lynch’s Guide to Grammar and Style
    These notes are a miscellany of grammatical rules and explanations, comments on style, and suggestions on usage put by Jack Lynch, an Associate Professor in the English department of the Newark campus of Rutgers University, for his classes.
  24. English Style Guide
    This guide is based on the style book which is given to all journalists at The Economist. The site contains various hints on how to use metaphors, punctuation, figures, hyphens etc. Brief and precise.

    Sg in 50 Free Resources That Will Improve Your Writing Skills

  25. Technical Writing
    An extensive guidance on grammar and style for technical writing.
  26. 40+ Tips to Improve your Grammar and Punctuation
    “Purdue University maintains an online writing lab and I spent some time digging through it. Originally the goal was to grab some good tips that would help me out at work and on this site, but there is simply too much not to share.”

     

    Handouts At Grammar Bytes: Comma Splices & Fused SentencesFragmentsIrregular VerbsCommas
    Parallel Structure
    Pronoun AgreementPronoun CasePronoun Reference
    Subject-Verb AgreementWord Choice

     

©2013-2014 SPEAQ

   
   Let's Write     Let's Produce media    ^ top